**variables**

In the field of research or psychology, variables are
a basic concept that allows researchers to study and to understand human
behavior and mental processes of the individual. Simple Is that the variables are
those characteristics or attributes that can take on different values or
levels across individuals or situations. Variables can be used to measure,
manipulate, or predict various aspects of human behavior and cognition, and
they play an important role while study both in experiments and correlational
research designs.

There are many different types of variables that can
be studied in psychology, but some of the most common include:

**Independent Variable:**
The type of this variable is that the researcher manipulates or controls in the
experimental design. This variable is also called the variable of study. The
independent variable is to considered a basic "cause" variable
because it is thought that it has an effect on the dependent variable.

**Example: **In
a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, the independent variable would be
the amount of caffeine consumed.

**Dependent variable:**
This variable is considered as this is measured or observed in the experiment.
The dependent variable is often considered an "effect" variable
because we believed that this will be affect by the independent variable.

**Example:**
in upper example a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, the dependent
variable would be the memory performance of the participants.

**Continuous variable:**
These are that variables that can take on any values along a continuum, like,
age, height, or weight. These are all continuous. These Continuous variables
are often measured using numerical scales or instruments and can be analyzed
using statistical techniques in SPSS such as regression or correlation.

**Categorical variable:**
This is a variable that can take on a limited number of discrete values or
categories, such as gender, race, or marital status. Categorical variables are
often analyzed using methods in SPSS also such as chi-square tests or logistic
regression.

**Confounding variable:**
This type of variables is that can potentially affect the relationship between
the independent and dependent variables but is not accounted for in the study
design. Confounding variables can lead to false or misleading results. These types
of variables cannot fully control but can manageable.

Some examples of confounding variables are: light,
atmosphere, weather conditions, are the most common examples of confounding
variables.

**Note:** In upper you have
read that it may affect or some time not effect the study or experiments.

Variables can be used in
a variety of research designs and methods, including experimental,
quasi-experimental, correlational, and observational studies. In an
experimental design, the researcher manipulates the independent variable and
measures the effect on the dependent variable. In a quasi-experimental design,
the researcher does not have complete control over the independent variable,
but still measures the effect on the dependent variable. In a correlational
design, the researcher measures the relationship between two or more variables
without manipulating any of them. In an observational study, the researcher
observes and records behavior without manipulating any variables.

To illustrate the concept
of variables in psychology, consider the example of a study on the effects of
stress on cognitive performance. In this study, the independent variable would
be the level of stress, which could be manipulated by exposing the participants
to a stress-inducing task or situation. The dependent variable would be
cognitive performance, which could be measured using a standardized test or
task. The study would also need to control for confounding variables such as
age, gender, and prior cognitive ability.

By manipulating and
measuring variables in this way, researchers can gain insight into the complex relationships
between various factors that influence human behavior and cognition. The study
of variables is a fundamental aspect of psychological research and allows us to
make meaningful and useful predictions about how people will behave and think
in different situations.

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