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variables and its type with examples



    In the field of research or psychology, variables are a basic concept that allows researchers to study and to understand human behavior and mental processes of the individual. Simple Is that the variables are those characteristics or attributes that can take on different values ​​or levels across individuals or situations. Variables can be used to measure, manipulate, or predict various aspects of human behavior and cognition, and they play an important role while study both in experiments and correlational research designs.

    There are many different types of variables that can be studied in psychology, but some of the most common include:


Independent Variable: The type of this variable is that the researcher manipulates or controls in the experimental design. This variable is also called the variable of study. The independent variable is to considered a basic "cause" variable because it is thought that it has an effect on the dependent variable.

Example: In a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, the independent variable would be the amount of caffeine consumed.


Dependent variable: This variable is considered as this is measured or observed in the experiment. The dependent variable is often considered an "effect" variable because we believed that this will be affect by the independent variable.

Example: in upper example a study on the effects of caffeine on memory, the dependent variable would be the memory performance of the participants.


Continuous variable: These are that variables that can take on any values along a continuum, like, age, height, or weight. These are all continuous. These Continuous variables are often measured using numerical scales or instruments and can be analyzed using statistical techniques in SPSS such as regression or correlation.


Categorical variable: This is a variable that can take on a limited number of discrete values ​​or categories, such as gender, race, or marital status. Categorical variables are often analyzed using methods in SPSS also such as chi-square tests or logistic regression.


Confounding variable: This type of variables is that can potentially affect the relationship between the independent and dependent variables but is not accounted for in the study design. Confounding variables can lead to false or misleading results. These types of variables cannot fully control but can manageable.

Some examples of confounding variables are: light, atmosphere, weather conditions, are the most common examples of confounding variables.    

Note: In upper you have read that it may affect or some time not effect the study or experiments.


Variables can be used in a variety of research designs and methods, including experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, and observational studies. In an experimental design, the researcher manipulates the independent variable and measures the effect on the dependent variable. In a quasi-experimental design, the researcher does not have complete control over the independent variable, but still measures the effect on the dependent variable. In a correlational design, the researcher measures the relationship between two or more variables without manipulating any of them. In an observational study, the researcher observes and records behavior without manipulating any variables.


To illustrate the concept of variables in psychology, consider the example of a study on the effects of stress on cognitive performance. In this study, the independent variable would be the level of stress, which could be manipulated by exposing the participants to a stress-inducing task or situation. The dependent variable would be cognitive performance, which could be measured using a standardized test or task. The study would also need to control for confounding variables such as age, gender, and prior cognitive ability.


By manipulating and measuring variables in this way, researchers can gain insight into the complex relationships between various factors that influence human behavior and cognition. The study of variables is a fundamental aspect of psychological research and allows us to make meaningful and useful predictions about how people will behave and think in different situations.

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